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Bronchodilator medicines - Side effects of bronchodilator medicines

Bronchodilators can sometimes cause side effects, although these are usually mild or short-lived.

Some of the main side effects of bronchodilators are described below, but this is not an exhaustive list and they may not all necessarily apply to the specific medication you are taking.

For information on the side effects of a particular bronchodilator, check the information leaflet that comes with your medication, or search for your medication in our medicines A-Z guide.

Beta-2 agonists

The main side effects of beta-2 agonists include:

  • trembling, particularly in the hands
  • nervous tension
  • headaches
  • suddenly noticeable heartbeats (palpitations)
  • muscle cramps

These side effects will often improve and disappear completely after you have been using beta-2 agonists for a few days or weeks. Contact your GP if your side effects persist, as your dose may need to be adjusted.

More serious side effects are rare, but can include sudden constriction of the airways (paradoxical bronchospasm) with some inhalers, with excessive doses occasionally causing heart attacks and a severely low level of potassium in the blood (hypokalemia).


The main side effects of anticholinergics include:

Less common side effects include nausea, heartburn, difficulty swallowing (dysphagia), palpitations, throat irritation and difficulty urinating. Glaucoma may worsen if the medication gets in the eyes when using an inhaler or a nebuliser.


Theophylline can cause serious side effects if too much of the medication builds up in your body. You will usually need to have regular blood tests during treatment, to ensure the levels of theophylline in your body are safe.

Older people are more at risk of developing side effects from theophylline, because their livers may not be able to remove the medication from their body.

The main side effects of theophylline include:

Contact your GP if you have any of these side effects, as your dose may need to be reviewed.

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